Wednesday, 3 February 2021

Climate of planet Earth: food for thought



The Climate of Planet Earth: food for thought

The 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has started in Paris. What will be discussed at this summit? We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the data, graphically presented in the format of infographics, which will help you get your first idea of ​​this conference in particular and the problem of global warming in general.

The average temperature of the atmosphere has increased by 1 degree Celsius compared to the pre-industrial era. This is at least the assumption made by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 
(IPCCExternal reference). Many experts question these statements, but one thing is clear: these organizations now have the largest amount of data that allows them to draw at least some conclusions for the medium and long term.

If we follow the logic of the IPCC and WMO, then the main reason for the increase in the temperature of the earth's atmosphere, disruptions in the usual rhythm of changing seasons, rising sea levels and more and more frequent weather anomalies is carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. The saturation of the atmosphere with greenhouse gases leads, in turn, to the release of additional volumes of CO2.


To break this vicious circle, the IPCC and WMO recommend that the industrialized countries of the world take a number of measures in order to limit the rise in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere to 2 degrees Celsius compared to the pre-industrial era. In 2009, the heads of the world's major countries and governments agreed, by the way, to recognize this indicator as a common long-term goal for all. On the other hand, the Earth's atmosphere still has a certain margin of safety, and therefore the IPCC allows the continued emission of CO2 into the atmosphere, albeit to a certain, strictly limited extent.

Climate protection made in Germany

Climate protection made in Germany

The fight to save the climate: Climate expert Falco Uckerdt explains Germany's role in the international fight against climate change.

Germany supported the creation of a solar power plant in Ouarzazate. picture alliance / Photoshot
Germany supported the creation of a solar power plant in Ouarzazate.picture-alliance / Photoshot



German policy is guided by values clearly stated in the Basic Law. 

Germany also defends these values ​​internationally: At the 2015 Climate Conference in Paris, the heads of state and government of 150 countries committed to keeping the Earth warming below 2 degrees Celsius. Falko Jukerdt, National Team Leader for the Energy Transition Program at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Change (PiK), explains Germany's role in achieving climate targets.


How should the global economy change in order not to exceed the upper limit of two degrees?

In order to keep the warming below 2 ° C, global CO2 emissions must fall to zero by 2070 at the latest, so so-called CO2 neutrality must be achieved. If the remaining CO2 budget, that is, the entire amount of emissions still allowed, is evenly distributed among the entire population of the world, industrialized countries will have to become climate neutral by 2050 due to higher CO2 emissions per capita.

At the EU level, Germany is playing a key role and is campaigning for the agreed target of EU-wide climate neutrality by 2050, ”- Falko J├╝ckerdt. For the electricity sector, this means further expansion of the renewable energy sector and the rapid elimination of the remaining coal, and ultimately the production of electricity from natural gas. But even these measures only cover just under a third of greenhouse gas emissions. Otherwise, decisive climate protection measures must be taken in the areas of transport, housing, industry, and agriculture.

At the EU level, Germany plays a key role and campaigns towards the agreed target of EU-wide climate neutrality by 2050

Falco Jukerdt

How do you assess Germany's commitment to climate protection in the EU?

At the EU level, Germany plays a key role and advocates for an agreed EU-wide climate neutrality target by 2050. Germany is now committed to tightening its climate target for 2030 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 percent (compared to 1990). As a result of tightening the EU target, Germany will increase its own emission reduction target for 2030, so that it is likely to exceed the EU-wide target.

What is Germany's international role?

Germany promotes global technology transfer by increasingly combining industrial and climate policies. In particular, innovative electrification technologies are likely to become key global technologies. Electrification means in this case the use of renewable electricity in the transport, construction, and industrial sectors, as well as digital communication management in these sectors. These include electric vehicles, heat pumps, electric furnaces and heaters for industrial processes, and hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Moving towards global climate neutrality will create economic opportunities and new markets, especially for countries and companies that have pioneered climate protection.

Tuesday, 2 February 2021

Blockchain: Transforming the registration of IP rights and strengthening the protection of unregistered IP rights

Blockchain: Transforming the registration of IP rights and strengthening the protection of unregistered IP rights

Blockchain platforms create a transparent and (arguably) immutable (i.e. unchangeable) chain of information. These characteristics could provide intellectual property (IP) offices with an opportunity to transform the registration of IP rights by making the process more cost-effective, faster, and more accurate, and secure. Further, the technology could provide an opportunity to transform the efficiency and transparency of rights management information.

What are the basics of blockchain technology and what is its potential to enhance the registration process for trademarks and designs, as well as to provide evidence of use? For unregistered design rights and copyright, how might blockchain technology provide better evidence of the creation of unregistered designs or new copyrighted works?

Blockchain technology: the basics

Simply put, a blockchain is a form of distributed ledger technology, which creates a secure, transparent record of every transaction and reports the transactions undertaken to everyone on the blockchain platform. By way of example, if I wanted to prove the creation of this article (i.e. my copyright) on a blockchain, it would not store this actual article. Rather, it would record a hash (an encrypted unique string of letters and numbers) that uniquely identifies this article, allows verification of authorship, and provides evidence that the creative work (i.e. this article) existed at a given time, albeit without revealing its actual contents. This hash is then linked with any other hashes that were made at the same time and these are recorded in a "block". Each block is then turned into a hash, with every new block also referring to the hash of the previous block, creating a cryptographically connected chain of blocks. Any modification to an older block will break the chain because the hash of that block will no longer be validly referenced in the subsequent blocks.

Blockchain technology could make the registration process for designs and trademarks more efficient by cutting down on some of these processes and procedures.

Registration of a design or trademark: current position

To better understand the potential applicability and value of blockchain technology to IP protection, let us take registration of a design or trademark in the European Union (EU) and/or the United Kingdom (UK). Prior to registering a design or trademark, you need to decide where you want to protect it, for example, in the EU and/or the UK. Second, you need to consider issues of registration. For a design, is it: (i) "new"; and (ii) does it have an individual character (i.e. does it give a different overall impression to an informed user compared to any earlier designs which are already in the public domain)? For a trademark, you need to consider if the trademark is distinctive and capable of registration, and the goods and/or services for which you wish to obtain protection. You will also want to clear any potentially conflicting earlier rights by carrying out appropriate searches. Currently, you can use the Design View application and TMView of the European Union IP Office (EUIPO) to check the status of designs and trademarks in the EU Member States, but may also need to conduct broader clearance searches for example, by using the WIPO Global Brand Database and the WIPO Global Design Database, or by conducting commercial searches. Finally, you need to pay the application fee and file the application at the EUIPO and/or the UK IP Office. Assuming there are no objections by the Registry or oppositions by third parties, design rights may be registered in a matter of days from the date of the application, and trademarks may be registered within four months from the date of the application.

Registration of a design or trademark and evidence of use

Blockchain technology could make the registration process for designs and trademarks more efficient by cutting down on some of these processes and procedures. For some trademark applications, for example, where it is not possible to show that the trademark is inherently distinctive, it will be necessary to demonstrate that the mark has acquired distinctiveness through use. Assuming the necessary changes were made in the law to allow for actual use of a trademark (for example) to be added to and recorded on the official register, evidence and information of actual use of a trademark in trade, as well as the frequency of such use, could be easily shared and available for everyone to see on a blockchain. If trademark owners decided to make such information freely available, this would save significant time and costs. Recognizing its potential, WIPO is facilitating dialogue on blockchain to gain a better understanding of its potential use in the context of IP.

In order to establish and maintain trademark rights in the EU and the UK after registration, it may become important for a right holder to demonstrate genuine use over a particular period. The ability to provide evidence of continuing or prior use of a trademark can be a laborious process involving the time-consuming and costly collection of relevant records to demonstrate the use of a trademark.

For blockchain technology to take off in the management of IP rights, there would need to be an agreed and internationally supported set of standards.

To assist with this process, one could deploy a smart contract on a blockchain (i.e. a self-executing computing code that automatically processes its inputs when triggered). Such a contract could provide evidence of a timestamp of first or subsequent use of a trademark, which could then be presented (if accepted) to the court/Registry as evidence. In May 2020, WIPO launched WIPO PROOF, a new digital business service that provides electronic signed certification to prove the existence of a digital file at a specific date and time. By circumventing the usual reliance on accounting and other records (which may not demonstrate sufficiently the actual use of the trademark) and archived paper records, the costs of proving used may be dramatically reduced. This could, in turn, lead to a reduction in the risk of challenges to trademark registrations.

Unregistered IP rights: design rights and copyright

Blockchain technology can also potentially assist with creating a register of unregistered IP rights such as unregistered design rights and copyright as it can easily provide evidence of the time of creation, rights management information (if applicable), and jurisdictional requirements.

Careful thought, however, would need to be given to the design of such a platform. A blockchain-based registry, to which any member of the public could upload rights management information as a time-stamped entry, would only be useful if an authoritative and trusted third party, such as an IP office or a Collective Management Organization was involved. Alternatively, right holders may also be account holders, meaning that the Registry would not just record but would also facilitate the transaction of IP rights. In order to unleash the full potential of a new blockchain-based copyright management system, a large number of right owners would need to use it, and it would need to cover a sufficient amount of copyrighted works. As noted by Alexander Savelyev, "as the number of users increases, however, the system would become even more valuable and able to attract a wider user base". Assuming these methods are scalable, reliable, and easy to adopt, one could envisage a situation where exploitation of work (for example, a sound recording) could be dependent on registration in a digital ledger. However, given the challenges associated with creating a blockchain-based registry holders of unregistered rights may consider safeguarding their intellectual assets using WIPO’s new business service, WIPO PROOF (read more below).

WIPO PROOF – Trusted Digital Evidence

WIPO PROOF is a new digital business service that provides a date- and time-stamped digital fingerprint of any file, proving its existence at a specific point in time. This new service complements WIPO’s existing intellectual property (IP) systems. It is specifically designed for an increasingly digital world where innovation and creativity are enabled by technology, big data, and global collaboration.

Another issue to consider is the authenticity of the information on a blockchain. Blockchains are append-only ledgers – information can only be changed in exceptional circumstances. If the information on a copyrighted work is entered incorrectly, there is very little one can do without appropriate technical and governance processes and systems in place to remedy the situation.

Another issue to consider is how to manage a scenario where copyright is transferred outside of a blockchain network. Take, for example, a situation where you have an on-chain token, which represents an off-chain good (such as the copyright in a book). In this context, it is important to ensure that anything that happens to the off-chain good (i.e. the copyright in the book) is accurately recorded in the digital ledger. Without appropriate human coordination, rather than reducing information and increasing trust, the introduction of a blockchain-based system may have the opposite effect.

In light of the challenges associated with creating a blockchain-based registry, holders of unregistered rights may consider safeguarding their intellectual assets via WIPO PROOF, WIPO’s new business service. (Photo: WIPO)

Final thoughts

This article briefly considers some of the benefits and limitations of using blockchain technology in registering and providing evidence of the use of IP. For blockchain technology to take off in the management of IP rights, there would need to be an agreed and internationally supported set of standards. It will be important for regulators and policymakers to work together to help shape the implementation of this technology in relation to the registration of IP rights.

For unregistered IP rights, such as copyright, we have considered some benefits and limitations of using blockchain technology. There are many issues from a legal, technical and socioeconomic perspective to consider. Only by addressing these issues will blockchain achieve a sufficient degree of scalability, reliability, and market adoption to have an impact on copyright in the digital environment.

This article considers issues from the perspective of English law and nothing in this article constitutes legal advice. There are many topics that this article does not cover including, for example, the use of blockchain in rights management and anti-counterfeiting.

Space consisting of a consistency of BP


Space consisting of the consistency of BP and is me,

The universal forms of existence of matterP. and V. do not exist outside of matter and independently of it.

  Spatial characteristics are positions relative to other bodies (coordinates of bodies), distances between them, angles between different spatial directions (individual objects are characterized by length and shape, which are determined by the distances between parts of the object and their orientation). Temporal characteristics - "moments" in which the phenomena occur, the duration (duration) of the processes. The relationship between these spatial and temporal quantities is called a metric. There are also topological characteristics of P. and V. - "contact" of various objects, the number of directions. They deal with purely spatial relations only in the case when it is possible to abstract from the properties and motion of bodies and their parts: with purely temporal ones - in the case when it is possible to abstract from the variety of coexisting objects.

  However, in reality, spatial and temporal relationships are related to each other. Their immediate unity appears in the movement of matter; the simplest form of movement - movement - is characterized by values ​​that represent various relations between P. and V. (speed, acceleration) and are studied by kinematicsModern physics has discovered a deeper unity between P. and V. (see Relativity theory ), which is expressed in a joint regular change in the Spatio-temporal characteristics of systems depending on the movement of the latter, as well as in the dependence of these characteristics on the concentration of masses in the environment.

  To measure spatial and temporal values, reference frames are used.

  With the deepening of knowledge about matter and motion, scientific ideas about P. and V. deepen and change. Therefore, to understand the physical meaning and significance of the newly discovered laws of P. and V. it is possible only by establishing their connections with the general laws of interaction and movement of matter.

  P. and century concepts. are a necessary component of the picture of the world as a whole, therefore they are included in the subject of philosophy. The doctrine of P. and V. deepens and develops along with the development of natural science and, above all, physicsOf the rest of the natural sciences, a significant role in the progress of the theory of P. and V. played astronomy and especially cosmology.

  Development of physics, geometry and astronomy in the 20th century. confirmed the correctness of the provisions of dialectical materialism about P. and V. In turn, the dialectical-materialist concept of P. and V. allows one to give a correct interpretation of the modern physical theory of P. and V., to reveal the unsatisfactory nature of both its subjectivist understanding and attempts to "develop" it, tearing P. and V. from matter.

  Spatio-temporal relations are subject not only to general laws but also to specific ones characteristic of objects of a particular class since these relations are determined by the structure of a material object and its internal interactions. Therefore, such characteristics as the size of an object and its shape, lifetime, rhythms of processes, types of symmetry, are essential parameters of an object of this type, which also depend on the conditions in which it exists. Spatial and temporal relations are especially specific in such complex developing objects as an organism or a society. In this sense, we can talk about individual P. and V. such objects (for example, about biological or social time).

Development of ideas about space and time in the 20th century.


Development of ideas about space and time in the 20th century

In the late 19th - early 20th centuries. there was a profound change in scientific ideas about matter and, accordingly, a radical change in the concepts of P. and V. The physical picture of the world includes the concept of a field (see Physical Fields ) as a form of the material connection between particles of matter, as a special form of matter. All bodies, that is, are systems of charged particles bound by a field that transfers actions from one particle to another at a finite speed - the speed of light. It was believed that the field is the state of the ether, an absolutely motionless medium that fills the world absolute space. It was later established (H. Lorenz and others) that when bodies move at very high speeds, close to the speed of light, there is a change in the field, leading to a change in the spatial and temporal properties of bodies; at the same time, Lorentz believed that the length of bodies in the direction of their movement is reduced, and the rhythm of the physical processes taking place in them slows down, and the spatial and temporal values ​​change in concert.

  At first, it seemed that in this way it would be possible to determine the absolute speed of the body in relation to the ether, and, consequently, in relation to the absolute space. However, the entire set of experiments refuted this view. It was found that in any inertial reference frame, all physical laws, including the laws of electromagnetic (and generally field) interactions, are the same. The special theory of relativity (see Relativity theory) A. Einstein, based on two fundamental theses - the limit of the speed of light and the equality of inertial reference frames, was a new physical theory of physics and physics. It follows from it that spatial and temporal relations - the length of the body (in general, the distance between two material points) and the duration (as well as the rhythm) of the processes occurring in it - are not absolute values, as Newtonian mechanics claimed, but relative ones. A particle (for example, a nucleon) can manifest itself in relation to a particle slowly moving relative to it as spherical, and in relation to a particle incident on it with a very high speed - as a disk flattened in the direction of motion. Accordingly, the lifetime of a slowly moving charged p- meson is ~ 10 -8 sec, and fast-moving (with near-light speed) - many times more. The relativity of the space-time characteristics of bodies is fully confirmed by experience. It follows from this that the idea of ​​absolute P. and V. untenable. P. and V. are precisely the general forms of coordination of material phenomena, and not independently existing (regardless of matter) principles of being. The theory of relativity excludes the concept of empty space and space that have their own dimensions. The concept of empty space was later rejected in quantum field theory with its new concept of vacuum (see Physical vacuum ). Further development of the theory of relativity (see. Gravitation) showed that the space-time relations also depend on mass concentration. In the transition to cosmic scales, the geometry of the P.-V. is not Euclidean (or "flat", that is, not dependent on the size of the area of ​​the P.-V.), but varies from one region of space to another depending on the density of masses in these regions and their motion (see Cosmology, where the question of the finiteness or infinity of P. and V.) is also stated. On the scale of the metagalaxy, the geometry of space changes with time due to the expansion of the metagalaxy. Thus, the development of physics and astronomy has proved the inconsistency of both Kant's apriorism, that is, the understanding of P. and v. both a priori forms of human perception, the nature of which is invariable and independent of matter, and Newton's dogmatic concept of P. and V.

  Communication P. and V. with matter are expressed not only in the dependence of the laws of P. and V. from the general laws that determine the interaction of material objects. It also manifests itself in the presence of a characteristic rhythm of the existence of material objects and processes - typical for each class of objects of average lifetimes and average spatial dimensions.

  From the above, it follows that P. and V. very general physical laws are inherent in all objects and processes. This also applies to the problems associated with the topological properties of P. and V. The problem of the boundary (contact) of individual objects and processes is directly related to the question of the finite or infinite divisibility of P. and V., their discreteness or continuity, which was raised in antiquity. In ancient philosophy, this question was resolved purely speculatively. For example, assumptions were made about the existence of "atoms" of time (Zeno). In science 17-19 centuries. the idea of ​​atomism P. and V. lost any meaning. Newton believed that P. and V. really separated to infinity. This conclusion followed from his concept of empty P. and V., the smallest elements of which are a geometric point and a moment of time ("moments" in the literal sense of the word). Leibniz believed that although P. and V. divisible indefinitely, but not really divided into points - in nature there are no objects and phenomena devoid of size and duration. From the idea of ​​the unlimited divisibility of P. and V., it follows that the boundaries of bodies and phenomena are absolute. The idea of ​​the continuity of P. and V. more strengthened in the 19th century. with the opening of the field; in the classical sense, a field is an absolutely continuous object.

  The problem of real divisibility of P. and V. was delivered only in the 20th century. in connection with the discovery in quantum mechanics of the uncertainties of the relation, according to which for absolutely precise localization of a microparticle, infinitely large pulses are required, which physically cannot be realized. Moreover, modern physics of elementary particles shows that under very strong influences on a particle, it is not conserved at all, but even multiple productions of particles occurs. In reality, there are no real physical conditions under which it would be possible to measure the exact value of the field strengths at each point. Thus, it has been established in modern physics that it is not only the real separation of space and space that is impossible. into points, but it is fundamentally impossible to carry out the process of their real endless separation. Consequently, the geometric concepts of a point, curve, surface are abstractions that reflect the spatial properties of material objects only approximately. In reality, objects are not absolutely separated from each other, but only relatively. The same is true for moments in time. It is this view of the "point nature" of events that follows from the so-called. nonlocal field theory (seeNonlocal quantum field theory )Simultaneously with the idea of ​​nonlocality of interaction, a hypothesis is being developed about the quantization of space-time, i.e., about the existence of the smallest length and duration (see Quantization of space-time )At first, it was assumed that the "quantum" of length is 10-13 cm(of the order of the classical radius of an electron or of the order of the "length" of the strong interaction )However, with the help of modern charged particle accelerators, phenomena associated with lengths of 10-14-10-15 cm investigatedtherefore, the values ​​of the quantum of length began to move to ever-smaller values ​​(10-17, The “length” of the weak interaction, and even 10 -33 cm ).

  The solution of the question of quantizing P. and V. closely related to the problems of the structure of elementary particlesStudies have appeared in which the applicability of the concepts of P. and V. to the submicroscopic world is generally denied. However, the concepts of P. and V. should not be reduced to either metric or topological relations of known types.

  A close relationship between the Spatio-temporal properties and the nature of the interaction of objects is also found in the analysis of the symmetry of the space and the century. Back in 1918 (E. Noether ) it was proved that the uniformity of space corresponds to the law of conservation of momentum, uniformity of time corresponds to the law of conservation of energy, and the isotropy of space corresponds to the law of conservation of angular momentum. Thus, the types of symmetry of P. and V. as general forms of coordination of objects and processes are interconnected with the most important conservation lawsThe symmetry of space during specular reflection turned out to be associated with an essential characteristic of microparticles - with their parity.

  One of the important problems of P. and V. is the question of the direction of the flow of time. In the Newtonian concept, this property of time was taken for granted and did not need to be substantiated. Leibniz associated the irreversibility of the passage of time with the unambiguous direction of the chains of causes and effects. Modern physics has concretized and developed this rationale, linking it with the modern understanding of causalityApparently, the direction of time is associated with such an integral characteristic of material processes as development, which is fundamentally irreversible.

  Problems of P. and V., also discussed in antiquity, include the question of the number of measurements of P. and V. In the Newtonian concept, this number was considered original. However, even Aristotle substantiated the three-dimensionality of space by the number of possible sections (divisions) of the body. Interest in this problem increased in the 20th century. with the development of topologyL. Brower established that the dimension of a space is a topological invariant - a number that does not change under continuous and one-to-one transformations of the space. A number of studies have shown the relationship between the number of dimensions of space and the structure of the electromagnetic field (G. Weil), between the three-dimensionality of space and the helicity of elementary particles. All this showed that the number of measurements of P. and V. inextricably linked with the material structure of the world around us.

Concepts of space and time in philosophy and natural science of the 18th and 19th centuries


Concepts of space and time in philosophy and natural science of the 18th and 19th centuries.

Materialist philosophers of the 18th and 19th centuries solved P.'s problem and V. mostly in the spirit of Newton's or Leibniz's concepts, although, as a rule, they did not fully accept any of them. Most materialist philosophers opposed Newton's empty space. Even J. Toland pointed out that the concept of emptiness is associated with the view of matter as inert, inactive. D. Diderot adhered to the same viewsG. Hegel was closer to Leibniz's conceptIn the concepts of subjective idealists and agnostics, the problem of P. and V. were reduced mainly to the question of the relation of P. and century. to consciousness, perception. J. Berkeleyrejected Newton's absolute P. and V., but considered spatial and temporal relations subjectively, as the order of perception; he did not even speak of objective geometric and mechanical laws. Therefore, the Berkeleian point of view did not play a significant role in the development of scientific ideas about P. and V. The situation was different from the views of I. Kantwhich at first adjoined Leibniz's concept. The contradiction between these ideas and the natural science views of that time led Kant to accept the Newtonian concept and to strive to philosophically substantiate it. The main thing here was the announcement of P. and V. a priori forms of human contemplation, that is, the justification of their absolutization. Kant's views on P. and V. found many supporters in the late 18th - 1st half of the 19th centuries. Their inconsistency was proved only after the creation and adoption of non-Euclidean geometry, which essentially contradicted Newton's understanding of space. Rejecting it, NI Lobachevsky and B. Riemann argued that the geometric properties of space, being the most general physical properties, are determined by the general nature of the forces that form bodies.

  The views of dialectical materialism in P. and V. were formulated by F. Engels. According to Engels, to be in space means to be in the form of one near the other; to exist in time means to be in the form of a sequence of one after the other. Engels emphasized that “... both these forms of existence of matter without matter are nothing, empty representations, abstractions that exist only in our head” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., Vol. 20, p. . 550).

  The crisis of mechanistic natural science at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. led to the revival, on a new basis, of subjectivist views on P. and V. Criticizing Newton's concept and correctly noting its weaknesses, E. Mach again developed a view of P. and V. as an "order of perception", emphasizing the experimental origin of the axioms of geometry. But Mach understood experience subjectively, therefore, both the geometry of Euclid and the geometries of Lobachevsky and Riemann were considered by him as different ways of describing the same spatial relations. Criticism of Mach's subjectivist views on P. and V. was given by VI Lenin in the book "Materialism and Emporio-Criticism".

Basic concepts of space and time


Basic concepts of space and time

The most important philosophical problems related to P. and V. are questions about the essence of P. and V., about the relation of these forms of being to matter, about the objectivity of Spatio-temporal relations and laws.

  Throughout almost the entire history of natural science and philosophy, there have been two basic concepts of P. and V. One of them comes from the ancient atomists - DemocritusEpicurusLucretius, who introduced the concept of empty space and considered it as homogeneous (the same at all points) and infinite (Epicurus believed that it is not isotropic, that is, it is not the same in all directions); the concept of time was then developed extremely poorly and was considered as a subjective sense of reality. In modern times, in connection with the development of the foundations of dynamics, this concept was developed by I. Newton, who cleared it of anthropomorphism. According to Newton, P. and V. are special principles that exist independently of matter and from each other. Space itself (absolute space) is an empty "container of bodies", absolutely motionless, continuous, homogeneous and isotropic, permeable - not affecting matter and not subject to its effects, infinite; it has three dimensions. Newton distinguished from absolute space the extension of bodies - their main property, thanks to which they occupy certain places in absolute space, coincide with these places. Extension, according to Newton, if we talk about the simplest particles (atoms), is an initial, primary property that does not require explanation. Because of the indistinguishability of its parts, absolute space is immeasurable and unknowable. The positions of bodies and the distances between them can be determined only in relation to other bodies. Dr. in words, science, and practice only deal with relative space. Time in Newton's concept is itself something absolute and not dependent on anything, pure duration, as such, evenly flowing from the past to the future. It is an empty "container of events" that may or may not fill it; the course of events does not affect the passage of time. Time is universal, one-dimensional, continuous, infinite, homogeneous (the same everywhere). From the absolute time, also immeasurable, Newton distinguished relative time. Time measurement is carried out using a clock, that is, movements that are periodic. P. and V. in Newton's concept are independent of each other. P.'s independence and century. manifest themselves primarily in the fact

  Newton criticized R. Descartes's idea of filled world space, that is, of the identity of extended matter and space.

  The concept of P. and v., Developed by Newton, was dominant in natural science during the 17th and 19th centuries. it corresponded to the science of that time - Euclidean geometry, classical mechanics, and the classical theory of gravitation. The laws of Newtonian mechanics are valid only in inertial reference framesThis distinction of inertial systems was explained by the fact that they move progressively, uniformly, and rectilinearly in relation to the absolute P. and V. and best match the latter.

  According to Newton's theory of gravitation, actions from some particles of matter to others are transmitted instantly through the empty space separating them. Newton's concept of P. and v., I.e., corresponded to the entire physical picture of the world of that era, in particular, the concept of matter as initially extended and unchanging in nature. An essential contradiction of Newton's concept was that absolute P. and V. remained in it unknowable by experience. According to the principle of relativity of classical mechanics, all inertial reference frames are equal and it is impossible to distinguish whether the system is moving with respect to the absolute P. and V. or rests. This contradiction served as an argument for the supporters of the opposite concept of P. and V., the starting positions of which date back to Aristotle; this idea of ​​P. and V. was developed by G.Leibniz, also based on some ideas of Descartes. A feature of Leibniz's concept of P. and V. consists in the fact that it rejects the idea of ​​P. and century. as about independent principles of being, existing along with matter and independently of it. According to Leibniz, space is the order of the mutual arrangement of a set of bodies existing outside each other, time is the order of successive phenomena or states of bodies. In this case, Leibniz further included the concept of a relative value in the concept of order. According to Leibniz's concept, the concept of the extension of an individual body, considered without regard to others, does not make sense. Space is a relation ("order") applicable only to many bodies, to a "row" of bodies. We can only talk about the relative size of a given body in comparison with the dimensions of other bodies. The same can be said for duration: the concept of duration is applicable to an individual phenomenon insofar as it is considered as a link in a single chain of events. The extension of any object, according to Leibniz, is not a primary property, but is conditioned by the forces acting inside the object; internal and external interactions determine the duration of the state; as for the very nature of time as an order of changing phenomena, it reflects their cause-and-effect relationship. Leibniz's concept is logically connected with his entire philosophical system as a whole. as for the very nature of time as an order of changing phenomena, it reflects their cause-and-effect relationship. Leibniz's concept is logically connected with his entire philosophical system as a whole. as for the very nature of time as an order of changing phenomena, it reflects their cause-and-effect relationship. Leibniz's concept is logically connected with his entire philosophical system as a whole.

  However, Leibniz's concept of P. and V. did not play a significant role in natural science in the 17th and 19th centuries, since she could not answer the questions posed by the science of that era. First of all, Leibniz's views on space seemed to contradict the existence of vacuum (only after the discovery of the physical field in the 19th century did the problem of vacuum appear in a new light); moreover, they clearly contradicted the general belief in the uniqueness and universality of Euclidean geometry; finally, Leibniz's concept seemed irreconcilable with classical mechanics, since it seemed that the recognition of the pure relativity of motion does not explain the predominant role of inertial frames of reference. Thus, Leibniz's contemporary natural science was in contradiction with his concept of P. and V., which was based on a much broader philosophical basis.