Tuesday, 2 February 2021

Basic concepts of space and time


Basic concepts of space and time

The most important philosophical problems related to P. and V. are questions about the essence of P. and V., about the relation of these forms of being to matter, about the objectivity of Spatio-temporal relations and laws.

  Throughout almost the entire history of natural science and philosophy, there have been two basic concepts of P. and V. One of them comes from the ancient atomists - DemocritusEpicurusLucretius, who introduced the concept of empty space and considered it as homogeneous (the same at all points) and infinite (Epicurus believed that it is not isotropic, that is, it is not the same in all directions); the concept of time was then developed extremely poorly and was considered as a subjective sense of reality. In modern times, in connection with the development of the foundations of dynamics, this concept was developed by I. Newton, who cleared it of anthropomorphism. According to Newton, P. and V. are special principles that exist independently of matter and from each other. Space itself (absolute space) is an empty "container of bodies", absolutely motionless, continuous, homogeneous and isotropic, permeable - not affecting matter and not subject to its effects, infinite; it has three dimensions. Newton distinguished from absolute space the extension of bodies - their main property, thanks to which they occupy certain places in absolute space, coincide with these places. Extension, according to Newton, if we talk about the simplest particles (atoms), is an initial, primary property that does not require explanation. Because of the indistinguishability of its parts, absolute space is immeasurable and unknowable. The positions of bodies and the distances between them can be determined only in relation to other bodies. Dr. in words, science, and practice only deal with relative space. Time in Newton's concept is itself something absolute and not dependent on anything, pure duration, as such, evenly flowing from the past to the future. It is an empty "container of events" that may or may not fill it; the course of events does not affect the passage of time. Time is universal, one-dimensional, continuous, infinite, homogeneous (the same everywhere). From the absolute time, also immeasurable, Newton distinguished relative time. Time measurement is carried out using a clock, that is, movements that are periodic. P. and V. in Newton's concept are independent of each other. P.'s independence and century. manifest themselves primarily in the fact

  Newton criticized R. Descartes's idea of filled world space, that is, of the identity of extended matter and space.

  The concept of P. and v., Developed by Newton, was dominant in natural science during the 17th and 19th centuries. it corresponded to the science of that time - Euclidean geometry, classical mechanics, and the classical theory of gravitation. The laws of Newtonian mechanics are valid only in inertial reference framesThis distinction of inertial systems was explained by the fact that they move progressively, uniformly, and rectilinearly in relation to the absolute P. and V. and best match the latter.

  According to Newton's theory of gravitation, actions from some particles of matter to others are transmitted instantly through the empty space separating them. Newton's concept of P. and v., I.e., corresponded to the entire physical picture of the world of that era, in particular, the concept of matter as initially extended and unchanging in nature. An essential contradiction of Newton's concept was that absolute P. and V. remained in it unknowable by experience. According to the principle of relativity of classical mechanics, all inertial reference frames are equal and it is impossible to distinguish whether the system is moving with respect to the absolute P. and V. or rests. This contradiction served as an argument for the supporters of the opposite concept of P. and V., the starting positions of which date back to Aristotle; this idea of ​​P. and V. was developed by G.Leibniz, also based on some ideas of Descartes. A feature of Leibniz's concept of P. and V. consists in the fact that it rejects the idea of ​​P. and century. as about independent principles of being, existing along with matter and independently of it. According to Leibniz, space is the order of the mutual arrangement of a set of bodies existing outside each other, time is the order of successive phenomena or states of bodies. In this case, Leibniz further included the concept of a relative value in the concept of order. According to Leibniz's concept, the concept of the extension of an individual body, considered without regard to others, does not make sense. Space is a relation ("order") applicable only to many bodies, to a "row" of bodies. We can only talk about the relative size of a given body in comparison with the dimensions of other bodies. The same can be said for duration: the concept of duration is applicable to an individual phenomenon insofar as it is considered as a link in a single chain of events. The extension of any object, according to Leibniz, is not a primary property, but is conditioned by the forces acting inside the object; internal and external interactions determine the duration of the state; as for the very nature of time as an order of changing phenomena, it reflects their cause-and-effect relationship. Leibniz's concept is logically connected with his entire philosophical system as a whole. as for the very nature of time as an order of changing phenomena, it reflects their cause-and-effect relationship. Leibniz's concept is logically connected with his entire philosophical system as a whole. as for the very nature of time as an order of changing phenomena, it reflects their cause-and-effect relationship. Leibniz's concept is logically connected with his entire philosophical system as a whole.

  However, Leibniz's concept of P. and V. did not play a significant role in natural science in the 17th and 19th centuries, since she could not answer the questions posed by the science of that era. First of all, Leibniz's views on space seemed to contradict the existence of vacuum (only after the discovery of the physical field in the 19th century did the problem of vacuum appear in a new light); moreover, they clearly contradicted the general belief in the uniqueness and universality of Euclidean geometry; finally, Leibniz's concept seemed irreconcilable with classical mechanics, since it seemed that the recognition of the pure relativity of motion does not explain the predominant role of inertial frames of reference. Thus, Leibniz's contemporary natural science was in contradiction with his concept of P. and V., which was based on a much broader philosophical basis.

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